Syllabus/Model Q.P/e-Resourses

e- RESOURCES

 e- Lessons Prepared  by  the Faculty and Students


2016-2017 SECOND B.SC NEW SYLLABUS


NEW SYLLABUS    

ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (Autonomous) VIJAYAWADA-08
    II B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS- THEORY
 PAPER – III; SEMESTER – III
 (Paper – III: Plant Taxonomy and Embryology)

    UNIT - I: Introduction to Plant Taxonomy       
                                       
1.      Fundamental components of Taxonomy (Identification, nomenclature, classification types and phylogeny)
2.      Salient features and comparative account of Bentham & Hooker and Engler & Prantl classification
3.      Role of Chemotaxonomy, Cytotaxonomy and Taximetrics in relation to Taxonomy

UNIT – II: Taxonomic Resources         
                                                     
1.      Nomenclature and Taxonomic resources: An introduction to International code of Botanical Nomenclature; Principles, Rules and Recommendations, Herbaria, Botanical Gardens of the World, Botanical Keys.
2.      Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families Annonaceae, Caparidaceae, Rutaceae, Curcurbitaceae, and Apiaceae

UNIT – III: Systematic Taxonomy      
                                           
1.      Systematic study and economic importance of plants belonging to the following families Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaranthaceae, Orchidaceae and Poaceae.

 UNIT – IV: Embryology    
                                                                        
1.      Introduction: History and Importance of Embryology.
2.      Microsporogenesis : Microspore and development of male gametophyte.
3.      Palynology : Principles and applications
4.      Megasporogenesis; Monosporic (Polygonum) Bisporic (Allium) and Terasporic (Adoxa) types of female gametophyte/embryo sac development.


UNIT – V: Embryogeny

      1    Embryo – Development of Monocot and Dicot embryo (with one example)
2    Polyembryony and Apomixis – and outline.
3    Endosperm –Nuclear, Cellular and Helobial endosperm.



     ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (Autonomous) VIJAYAWADA-08         
     II B. Sc – BOTANY SYLLABUS, SEMESTER – IV, 
PAPER – IV
 (Plant Physiology and Metabolism


UNIT – I: Plant – Water relations     
                                                                     
1.      Importance of water to plant life, physical properties of water
2.      Diffusion, imbibition and osmosis; Concept of water potential
3.      Absorption, transport of water, ascent of sap
                               4.Transpiration – Structure of stomata, mechanism of stomata opening and closing and factors effecting transpiration.
UNIT – II: Mineral nutrition and Enzymes         
                                                 
1.       Mineral Nutrition : Essential macro and micro mineral nutrients and their role, mineral  nutrients uptake (active and passive), deficiency symptoms of nutrients
2.       Nitrogen cycle – Biological nitrogen fixation
3.       Enzymes: Nomenclature, characteristics and enzyme action (Lock and Key theory and Induced fit theory)
UNIT – III: Photosynthesis   
                                                                      
1.      Photosynthesis: Photosynthetic pigments, absorption and action spectra; Red drop and Emerson enhancement effect, concept of two photosystems, mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport and evolution of oxygen, photophosphorylation, carbon assimilation pathways: C3, C4, and CAM.
2.      Photorespiration.
3.      Translocation of organic substances- Mechanism of phloem transport, source-sink relationships.

UNIT: IV: Plant Metabolism     
                                                                 
1.      Respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic, Krebs cycle, electron transport system, mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation, Pentose phosphate pathway.
2.      Lipid Metabolism : Structure and functions of lipids, conversion of lipids to carbohydrates, Beta-oxidation
3.      Types of  phosphorylation: ATP – Synthesis (Substrate level, Oxidative and Photophosphorylation)

UNIT – V: Growth and Development      
                                                
1.      Growth and Development : Definition, Synthesis and  physiological effects of phytohormones – auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, ABA, ethylene
2.      Physiology of flowering and photoperiodism, role of phytochrome in flowering.
3.      Stress Physiology: Concept and plant responses to water and temperature stresses.




BOTANY DEGREE SYLLABUS- 2014-15 
DEPT. OF BOTANY
  ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE
                       
                   
I B.Sc., SEMESTER-I: BOTANY PAPER-I
(PLANT DIVERSITY-I MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)
TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                           TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: (12-Periods)
  
a) Bacteria: Introduction, Structure, Nutrition, Reproduction and Economic importance.
b) Viruses     : Structure, Replication and Transmission of viruses

UNIT-ii: (15-Periods)
 a) General characters of Algae
 b) Thallus organization in Algae
 c) Economic importance of Algae (Special focus on Biofertilizers)
 d) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
           
Chlorophyceae-    Oedogonium
Phaeophyceae-     Ectocarpus
Rhodophyceae-    Polysiphonia
Cyanophyceae-   General account only                                                                                      

UNIT-iii: (13-Periods)
 a) General characters of Fungi
b) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
     (Developmental stages are not included)
Mastigomycotina:   Albugo
Zygomycotina:        Mucor
Ascomycotina:       Penicillium
Basidiomycotina:  Puccinia
Deuteromycotina- Collectotrichum
c) Lichens-      General account only.

UNIT-iv: (06-Periods)
a)Concept of plant disease- Introduction, terminology
b)  Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Bacteria- Necrosis, Spot,   Blights, Blast, Scorch, Canker, Damping off, Anthracnose, Die-back, Ring spots, Rot, Wilt, Scab
c) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Fungi- Rust, Smut, mildew, Galls, Warts,
d) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Viruses- Leaf curls, Witches broom and Chlorosis

UNIT-V: (06-Periods)
a) Diseases of plants caused by
Fungi      : Red rot of sugar cane
Bacteria:   Citrus canker
 Bhendi vein clearing Virus
 b) Principles of plant disease control
           Prevention- Quarantine, Eradication
           Treatment- Physical methods, Chemical methods
           Immunization- Disease resistance

Suggested readings:
1. Pandey, B.P. 2001.College Botany. Vol. I.Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria , Viruses, Plant Pathology, Industrial Microbiology and  Bryophyata. S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Alexopolous, J.and W.M. Charles. 1988. Introduction to Mycology. Wiley Eastern,  New   Delhi.
3. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A Textbook of  plant  Pathology. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd.,   New Delhi.
4. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A  Textbook  of Algae. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
5.  Sharma, O.P.1992. Text Book  of  Thallophyta. McGraw Hill Publishing Co.New Delhi.
6.  Steiner, R.Y Adel berg, 5th edition, Prentice hall of India, New Delhi
7. Pelzer, M.J. Chan, E.C.S and Krieg, 5th edition, Mc Graw Hill publishing Co, ltd, New Delhi
Website address:  www. botany.com
                    www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany         
                                                                                            

                                                               BOT-122
I. B.Sc., SEMESTER-II: BOTANY PAPER-II
(PLANT DIVERSITY-II BRYOPHYTA, PTERIDOPHYTA, GYMNOSPERMS AND PALAEOBOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                  TOTAL CREDITS:03                                                                   

UNIT-I:  (11-Peroids)

  a. General characters of Bryophyta
  b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
      stages not included)
  Hepaticopsida        :  Marchantia
 Anthocerotopsida   :  Anthoceros
 Bryopsida               :  Polytrichum

UNIT-II: (13-Periods)
 a. General   characters of Pteridophyta                                
 b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following   genera (Developmental  
     stages not included)
Lycopsida       : Lycopodium
Sphenopsida :  Equisetum
Pteropsida:      Marsilea

UNIT-III :( 14-Periods)
a. General characters of Gymnosperms
b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
   stages are not included )
Coniferopsida:   Pinus
Gnetopsida      : Gnetum

UNIT-IV:  (08-Periods)
a. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes 
b. Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes
c. General characters of Rhynia and Bennettitales
UNIT-V:  (06-Periods)
a. Types of Fossils: petrifications, Compressions, Impressions, Molds and Casts
b. Process of Fossilization
c. Geological time scale (Brief account)

Suggested Readings:
1. Sporne, K.R.1965. Morphology of Gymnosperms. Hutchison Co., Ltd., London.
2. Pandey, B.P. 2001. College Botany, Vol. I: Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria, Viruses, Plant
   Pathology, Industrial Microbiology  and Bryophyta. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Pandey, B.P.2006. College Botany, Vol. II: Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany.
   S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Vashitha , P.C., A.K. Sinha and Anil kumar. 2006. Botany –Pteridophyta (Vascular  Cryptogams)
    S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.    
5. H. N. Srivastava – Fundamental of Pteridophyta, Pradeep publications, Jalandar      
6. Parihar- Text book of Bryophyta 
Website address::          www. botany.com
                             www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          
                                                                             
                                                                                                            BOT-233
                                           II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III: BOTANY PAPER-III                    
(PLANT REPRODUCTION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                TOTAL CREDITS: 03

PLANT REPRODUCTION:

UNIT-I:(10-Periods)
a)   Structure of  mature anther and  pollen grain and development of male gametophyte
b) Types of mega sporangia (ovules) - Orthrotropous, Anatropous, Hemi anatropous, Campylotropous, Amphitropous and Circinotropous ovules.
c) Development of female gametophyte
d) Types of embryo sacs (Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic) 
e) Process of double fertilization, Hetero fertilization
f)  Endosperm - Nuclear, Helobial and Cellular endosperm.                                              

UNIT-II: (14- Periods)
a) Embryogeny – Development of Dicot and  Monocot embryo (with one example)
b) Polyembryony; Introduction, Process of Polyembryony and importance
c) Palynology : Pollen grain structure, sporoderm stratification, apertures, NPC system
Morphology of pollen grains-Tribulus, Ocimum and Maize
                        Applications of Palynology

 PLANT DEVELOPMENT:
UNIT-III: (10- Periods)
a)  Meristems- Introduction, classification.
b) Theories of  Root Apical Meristems (RAM), Shoot Apical Meristems (SAM) and   Root-Stem transition.

UNIT-IV: (08- Periods)
a) Epidermal tissue system- Epidermis, Stomata, Epidermal outgrowths
b)Ground and Vascular tissue systems- Cortex, Endodermis, Pericycle and Medulla
c) Vascular tissue system- Xylem, Phloem and Types of vascular bundles.
d)Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Root.
e) Anatomy of  primary Dicot and Monocot  Stem
f) Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Leaf.
UNIT-V;  (10-Periods)

a) Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
b) Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena
c) Wood Anatomy;   Texture of wood, Identification of wood, Seasoning and  preservation of  wood, Systematic position and  Anatomical aspects of wood – teakwood and  red sanders
Suggested Readings:

1. Johri, B.M. 1984. Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verleg, Berlin.
2. Kapil, R.P.1986. Pollination Biology. Inter India Publishers, New Delhi.
3. Bhojwani, S.S. and S.P.Bhatnagar. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th Ed.), Vikas  Publishing House, Delhi.
4. Esau, K. 1971.Anatomy of Seed Plants. John Wiley and Son,  USA.
5. Plant Anatomy by Elizabeth Cutler
6. Plant Anatomy by Falm
Website address:         www. botany.com
                           www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

     
                                
                                                                                 BOT-244
                          II B.Sc., SEMESTER-IV: BOTANY PAPER-IV                                     
(ECOLOGY, CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                              TOTAL CREDITS: 03
                                                             

UNIT -I:  (10-Periods)         

a) Brief account of Ecological Factors: Climatic (Light, Temperature), Edaphic & Biotic factors
b)  Plant succession: Process and theories of Succession,
     Types of Succession- Hydrosere and Xerosere,
c) Population Ecology: Natural Vegetation of India
d) Biodiversity: Introduction, Endangered, Endemic, Key stone Species and Hotspots (Brief account).                                                                               
UNIT-II: 8-periods)
a) Ultra Structure of the plant cell and cell organelles (cell wall, plasma membrane, golgi complex,   
endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes and nucleus)
b) Chromosome:  Structure, types of chromosomes, organization of chromosome ( Multistranded view, folded fibril model, Nucleosome model)
c) Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
UNIT-III:  (12-Periods)
a) Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
b) Linkage- introduction, Kinds of Linkage and significance.
c)  Crossing over- Introduction, mechanism, theories and types of crossing over.
d) Mutations – Introduction, types of mutations, physical and chemical mutagens.
e) Polyploidy- Introduction, Autopolyploids and Allopolyploids.
d) Gene: Concept, Structure and functions.
UNIT-IV:  (10-Periods)
a) Plant Tissue Culture: Introduction, components of media, types of media,   preparation and  sterilization of culture media.
b) Micro propagation   : Somatic embryogenesis, embryo culture and its                                                                                            applications, applications of micro propagation.  

UNIT –V: (10-Periods)                    
                                                                                   
a)    Somatic hybridization: Isolation of protoplasts, somatic hybridization and its  applications.                                               
  b) Transgenic plants; Genetically modified crops (Bt Cotton)

Suggested Readings:
1. Harris, N. and K.J. Oparka. 1994. Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at
   University Press, Oxford. UK.
2. Kormondye, E. 1989. Concepts of Ecology (3rd Ed.) Printice Hall of India, New Delhi
3. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Diversity of Microbes, Croptogams, Cell
   Biology a nd Genetics. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Sharma, P.D.1989. Elements  of  Ecology. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
5. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution                                        Website address:         www. botany.com
                         www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany         

                                                            
 GE: 240-HM
 II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III & IV: BOTANY GENERAL ELECTIVE
(HERBAL MEDICINE)
TOTAL PERIODS: 51                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 02

UNIT-I: (15-Periods)
1. Role of plants in medicine: Introduction to Herbal medicine, Brief account of 
                                                 Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Allopathy
2. Crude Drugs: Chemical, Pharmacological classification, Sources of crude Drugs

UNIT-II:(08-Periods)
Pharmacognosy: Definition, Pharmacognosy of the following plants
               a. Drugs obtained from roots:                        Hemidesmus indicus
                                                                                      Withania somnifera
               b. Drugs obtained from underground stems: Curcuma longa
                                                                                     Zingiber officinale
 UNIT-III: (08-Periods)
                                                                                    
               c. Drugs obtained from bark:                        Cinchona officinalis
                                                                                     Terminalia arjuna
                                                                       
               d. Drugs obtained from stem and wood:      Santalum album
                                                                                     Acacia catechu
UNIT-IV: (08-Periods)
               
               e. Drugs obtained from leaves:                     Adhotoda vasica
                                                                                     Aloe vera

               f. Drugs obtained from flowers:                 Artemisia vulgaris
                                                                                   Leonotis neptiifoli
 UNIT-V: (12-Periods)
                                                        
                g. Drugs obtained from Fruits:                  Coriandrum sativum
                                                                                   Foeniculum vulgare
                h. Drugs obtained from Seeds:                  Tribulus terrestris
                                                                                   Trigonella foenum-graceum
                i. Drugs obtained from all parts of the plant Body Catharanthus roseus
                                                                                               Gymnema sylvestre

Note: Botanical name, Family, Vernacular name, Botanical description, important chemical constituents and Practical applications only
  
Suggested readings:
1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethno botany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
2. Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Melrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol.
    I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.

                                                                                                                                      

                                                                                     BOT-355
                                                    III B.Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V
                                       (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)
TOTAL PERIODS:                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                  
                                                         
BIOSYSTEMATICS:

UNIT-I:

a) INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY 
    Introduction, Objectives and functions of taxonomy,
    Units and Principles of classification.
b)  Preparation and preservation of Herbarium, with a note on BSI activities related to Herbarium

c) NOMENCLATURE:
                  Binomial nomenclature,
                 Generic and specific epithet, author’s citation,
                  ICBN - principles and rules,
                 Taxonomic rank, type concept and principle of priority
UNIT-II:

  CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMS:
      a)  Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification
      b) Takhtajan system of classification 
  
UNIT-III:

 SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING 
      FAMILIES: 
      Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Apiaceae

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT-IV:

 WATER RELATIONS
a) Physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis, concept of water
     potential and Plasmolysis.
   ASCENT OF SAP- Introduction and Mechanism of Ascent of sap

   TRANSPIRATION- Introduction, types of transpiration, structure of stomata, mechanism of 
    stomatal opening and closing, and Factors affecting transpiration.

 b)  ENZYMES: Introduction, structure and properties of enzymes,
     Nomenclature and classification of enzymes
     Enzymatic action – Lock and key theory and Induced fit theory.
       
UNIT-V
a) PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction, chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Hill reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton transport,     Photophosphorylation, Carbon reduction pa
th ways- C3, C4, CAM. Photorespiration,factors affecting photosynthesis.

b) Translocation of organic solutes- source and sink relationship, mechanism of
translocation.
    
Suggested readings:
 1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to  Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., Ne York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Ecology  and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H. Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
5. Fundamentals of plant physiology-Dr. V.K. Jain- S. Chand publications
6. Plant physiology- S. Mukherji and A.K. Ghosh- New central book agency
7. Plant physiology- Taiz and Zeicer,  Sinawer  associatesinc. Publications
8. Introductory plant physiology- G. Ray Noggle and George. J. Fridge

Website address       www. botany.com
                      www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               BOT-367

III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VII
(BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

BIOSYSTEMATICS
UNIT-I:
CURRENT CONCEPTS IN TAXONOMY:  
a) Cytotaxonomy
b) Chemo-taxonomy,    
c) Serotaxonomy and Molecular Systematics (Outlines only)    
                                                                         
SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING FAMILIES:    
Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae and Lamiaceae
UNIT-II:
  SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING: 
 FAMILIES:   Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae 
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
UNIT-III:

a) RESPIRATION: Introduction, Mitochondria Structure, types of respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic respiration,  glycol sis, Krebs’s cycle, Electron transport mechanism, Oxidative phosphorylation, R.Q, fermentation, Pentose Phosphate Pathway. 
  b) NITROGEN METABOLISM: Introduction, Nitrogen cycle,
     Biological nitrogen fixation- Symbiotic and A symbiotic methods 
     Mechanism of nitrogen fixation
      Protein synthesis- Transcription and Translation
 UNIT-IV:

  a) PHYTOHORMONES:  Biosynthesis, Bioassay and Physiological effects of Auxins,  Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene and   
                                                Brassinosteroides
b) SEEDTECHNOLOGY: Seed structure, dormancy –reasons and methods to overcome  Seed Dormancy,
     Factors affecting seed viability and seed testing Seed Banks
     Seed production and Seed certification               
     
  UNIT-V
 STRESS PHYSIOLOGY: Introduction, types of stress resistance- avoidance and tolerance
 a) Water stress      b) Salt stress        c) Temperature stress           d) Heavy metal stress

 Suggested readings:
1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Ecology and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H.Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and   Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.  Academic Press, London.
5. Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1992. Plant Physiology. 4th edn. (Indian Edition), Wordsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., USA.
6. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger.1998. Plant Physiology ( 2nd Ed.)  Sinauer Associates, Inc.,  Publishers. Massachusetts, USA.
7. Plant physiology- S.N. Pandey   & B.K. Sinha
Website address:         www. botany.com
                          www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          
                       
                                                                                  
  
                                                                         BOT-356-MB
III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI
(SKILL BASED-I:  MEDICINAL BOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                             TOTAL CREDITS: 3

UNIT-I: (05-Periods)
INTRODUCTION:          
a) Terminology, importance of medicinal plants,
b) Research institutes (CDRI, CSIR, CIMAP and NBRI)
c)  Medicinal gardens (TBRI, LLOYDS)
UNIT-II: (07-Periods)
 ROLE OF MEDICINAL BOTANY IN DIFFERENT MEDICAL SYSTEMS:     
a) Ayurveda- Introduction, basic concepts, functions, diagnosis and treatment
b) Homeopathy-Introduction, basic concepts, diagnosis and treatment
c) Allopathy: Introduction, early concept, modern concept, diagnosis and treatment
UNIT-III: (05-Periods)
PHARMACOGNOSY:                            
a)Introduction, branches of pharmacology, materia medica, crude drug,
b) Source and administration of drugs.
c) Identification tests for secondary plant metabolites in drugs - alkaloids, steroids 
    and phenolics.
UNIT-IV: (05-Periods)
a)CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:  
      Importance,  methods of cultivation, harvesting and drying methods.
b) ETHNOBOTANY:      
Introduction, importance and   Ethno botanical studies in Andhra Pradesh
UNIT-V: (04-Periods)
a)CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:   Objectives and conservation  methods ( In-situ and Ex-situ conservation)
b) ROLE OF HERBAL BASED DRUGS IN TREATING CERTAIN
   HUMAN AILMENTS IN INDIA: Diabetes, Jaundice and Skin diseases
Suggested readings:
1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethnobotany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
1.               Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol. I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.
Website address:      www. botany.com
                              www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

              
                                                       
                                                                                      BOT: 356-MOB

III.B. Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI
(SKILL BASED-II:  MOLECULAR BIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 03
UNIT-I:( Periods-05)
 Nucleic acids
     a) Structure, types and  functions of DNA and  RNA
     b) Replication of DNA  in Prokaryotes
     c) Replication of DNA  in  Eukaryotes
UNIT-II: ( Periods-06)
      a)Transcription: Principles, transcriptional initiation in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
      b)Translation: Genetic code,  Wobble hypothesis
      c) Protein synthesis- outlines only
UNIT-III: ( Periods-06)
Genetic Engineering
a)                Recombinant-DNA-technology: Introduction, different steps in r-DNA technology
b)               Vectors(Plasmids, Bacteriophages, Cosmids & Plasmids)
UNIT-IV:(Periods-05)
   Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
         a) Agarose Gel electrophoresis
         b) Nucleic acid Blotting techniques (Southern,  Northern & Western techniques)
UNIT-V:(Periods-04)
 Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
           a) PCR: Principle, Technique of PCR, Applications of PCR
           b) DNA finger printing
Suggested readings:
1. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology,  
    Evolution and Ecology. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Channarayappa. 2007. Molecular Biotechnology-Principle and Practices. Universities, Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad.
3. Satyanarayana, U.2008. Biotechnology. Books and  Allied (P) Ltd.
4. Freifelder, D-Micribial Genetics, Narosa publishing house, New Delhi
5. Strickberger, M.W. Genetics. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi
Website address:         www. botany.com
                          www. wikipedia.org/wiki/botany                                                                                                      
                                                                         
                        BOT: 368-AM
III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII

(SUBJECT ELECTIVE- APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                    TOTAL CREDITS: 03
  
UNIT-I: (06-Periods)
  a)  History of Microbiology
  b)  Microscopy: Compound Micros
cope, Electron Microscopy-TEM and SEM
        c)  Bacteria: Structure, reproduction and economic importance.

UNIT-II:  (06-Periods)
       a) Classification of Bacteria basing on nutritional requirements,
       b) Preparation of bacterial growth media- Natural, synthetic, semi synthetic and
           enrichment types.
       c) Physical conditions required for growth (Temp and PH)

UNIT-III:  (04-Periods)
         Disease: 
a)               Immunotherapy –Introduction, types of Immunotherapy,  significance
b)               Chemotherapy – Introduction, principles, treatment types , dosage, delivery and    
                                   Limitations.
      UNIT-IV:  (05-Periods)

a)               Antibiotics- Introduction, types of antibiotics, side effects and antibiotic resistance.
b)                Production of Penicillin: Introduction, structure, mechanism of action, adverse effects and uses 
UNIT-V:  (05-Periods)
        Microbial diseases of Humans caused by
a)                  Virus-   Hepatitis 
b)               Protozoa- Amoebiasis
c)               Bacteria- Tuberculosis

Suggested readings:

1. Mc kane, L. and K. Judy.1996. Microbiology- Essentials and  Applications. Mc Graw  
    Hill,  New York.
2. Pelczar, J. 2006. Microbiology.Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New 
    Delhi.
3.Brown, Kevin. (2004). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotics



                                                                                      BOT: 368-HC
III B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII
(SUBJECT ELECTIVE-HORTICULTURE)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26               TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                      

UNIT-I: Introduction (06-Periods)
 a) Brief history of Horticulture
 b) Principles and methods of pest control
 c) Classification of Pesticides
  
UNIT-II: Propagation of Horticultural plants (06-Periods)
a)Sexual propagation: Seed production and certification process
b)                  Seed quality analysis, seed viability and longevity
 c) Vegetative propagation: Grafting and Layering
 d) Specialized underground structure: Plants propagated by separation
                                                               Plants propagated by division

UNIT-III: Plant Culture (04-Periods)
 a)  House plants: Plants grown in the windows, garden rooms and hanging baskets
 b) Terrarium culture: Introduction, Types of terrariums, tools, planting medium,      
                                     planting, care and maintenance

UNIT-IV: Indoor Plant Culture (04-Periods)
a) Bonsai:  Introduction, Principles, creating, training and repotting bonsai and Post Establishment care
b) Floriculture: Introduction, cultivation of chrysanthemum indica and Rosa indica and brief note on diseases and pest control methods.
c) Green house- History, types of green houses, construction, maintenance and importance.

UNIT-V: Outdoor Plant Culture (06-Periods)
a)Land scaping: Landscaping, Categories,  designing of Landscaping and   plants in  the land scapeing
b)                  Nursery production: Location of the nursery, nursery beds preparation, raising seed beds, pruning and transplantation
c) Micro irrigation: Introduction,  types of Micro irrigation methods and importance
               
Suggested readings:
1. Adams, C.R., K.M. Banford and M.P. Early. 1993. Principles of Horticulture. 
     Butterworth Heineman Ltd., London.
2. Agrawal, P.K.1993. Hand Book of Seed Technology. Dept. of Agriculture and 
   Cooperation. National Seed Corporation Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Gorer, R. 1978. The Growth of Gardens. Feber and Faber Ltd., London.
4. Rao, K.M.1991. A Text Book of Horticulture. McMillan India Ltd, New Delhi.
5. George Acquaah, Langston University, Pearson education Asia.




                                                                                    


BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-14
                                                                       w.e.f.2013-14
(I B.Sc SEMESTER-I & ii)

I B.Sc., semester-i: botany paper-I

(PLANT DIVERSITY-I microbiology, ALGAE, FUNGI & plant pathology)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: (12-Periods)
                                                                                                    
a) Bacteria: Introduction, Structure, Nutrition, Reproduction and Economic importance.
b) Viruses     : Structure, Replication and Transmission of viruses

UNIT-ii: (15-Periods)
 a) General characters of Algae
 b) Thallus organization in Algae
 c) Economic importance of Algae (Special focus on Biofertilizers)
 d) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
                       
Chlorophyceae-    Oedogonium
Phaeophyceae-     Ectocarpus
Rhodophyceae-    Polysiphonia
Cyanophyceae-   General account only                                                                 

UNIT-iii: (13-Periods)
 a) General characters of Fungi
 b) Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera
     (Developmental stages are not included)

Mastigomycotina:   Albugo
Zygomycotina:        Mucor
Ascomycotina:       Penicillium
Basidiomycotina:  Puccinia
Deuteromycotina- Collectotrichum

c) Lichens-      General account only.

UNIT-iv: (06-Periods)

a)  Concept of plant disease- Introduction, terminology
b) Symptoms of plant diseases caused by Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses (Necrosis, Spot, 
      Blights, Blast, Scorch, Canker, Damping off, Anthracnose, Die-back, Ring spots, Rot, Wilt, Scab,    
      Rust, Smut, mildew, Galls, Warts, Leaf curls, Witches broom and  Chlorosis).

UNIT-V: (06-Periods)

a) Diseases of plants caused by
Fungi      : Red rot of sugar cane
Bacteria:   Citrus canker
Virus       : Bhendi vein clearing

 b) Principles of plant disease control
           Prevention- Quarantine, Eradication
           Treatment- Physical methods, Chemical methods
           Immunization- Disease resistance

Suggested readings:

1. Pandey, B.P. 2001.College Botany. Vol. I.Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria , Viruses, Plant    
    Pathology, Industrial Microbiology and  Bryophyata. S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Alexopolous, J.and W.M. Charles. 1988. Introduction to Mycology. Wiley Eastern, New   Delhi.
3. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A Textbook of  plant  Pathology. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd.,  
    New Delhi.
4. Sambamurthy, A.V.S.S.2006. A  Textbook  of Algae. I.K. International Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
5.  Sharma, O.P.1992. Text Book  of  Thallophyta. McGraw Hill Publishing Co., New Delhi.
6.  Steiner, R.Y Adel berg, 5th edition, Prentice hall of India, New Delhi
7. Pelzer, M.J. Chan, E.C.S and Krieg, 5th edition, Mc Graw Hill publishing Co, ltd, New Delhi

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                     www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

                                                                                   

                                                                                                     BOT-122

  I. B.Sc., SEMESTER-II: BOTANY PAPER-II
               
(PLANT DIVERSITY-II BRYOPHYTA, PTERIDOPHYTA, GYMNOSPERMS AND PALAEOBOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                          TOTAL CREDITS:03

UNIT-I:  (11-Peroids)

  a. General characters of Bryophyta
  b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
      stages not included)
  Hepaticopsida        :  Marchantia
 Anthocerotopsida   :  Anthoceros
 Bryopsida               :  Polytrichum

UNIT-II: (13-Periods)

 a. General   characters of Pteridophyta                                   
 b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following   genera (Developmental  
     stages not included)
Lycopsida       : Lycopodium
Sphenopsida :  Equisetum
Pteropsida:      Marsilea

UNIT-III :( 14-Periods)

a. General characters of Gymnosperms
b. Structure, Reproduction and Systematic position of the following genera (Developmental 
   stages are not included )
        Coniferopsida:   Pinus
        Gnetopsida      : Gnetum

UNIT-IV:  (08-Periods)
a. Evolution of Sporophyte in Bryophytes 
b. Stelar Evolution in Pteridophytes
c. General characters of Rhynia and Bennettitales

UNIT-V:  (06-Periods)
a. Types of Fossils: petrifications, Compressions, Impressions, Molds and Casts
b. Process of Fossilization
c. Geological time scale (Brief account

Suggested Readings:

1. Sporne, K.R.1965. Morphology of Gymnosperms. Hutchison Co., Ltd., London.
2. Pandey, B.P. 2001. College Botany, Vol. I: Algae, Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria, Viruses, Plant
   Pathology, Industrial Microbiology  and Bryophyta. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
3. Pandey, B.P.2006. College Botany, Vol. II: Pteridophyta, Gymnosperms and Paleobotany.
   S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Vashitha , P.C., A.K. Sinha and Anil kumar. 2006. Botany –Pteridophyta (Vascular  Cryptogams)
    S. Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.    
5. H. N. Srivastava – Fundamental of Pteridophyta, Pradeep publications, Jalandar      
6. Parihar- Text book of Bryophyta 

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                      www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany            




BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-14

(II B.Sc SEMESTER-III & IV)
              
                                                                                                                                
                                                                                                                        BOT-233
                 II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III: BOTANY PAPER-III
                                                                       
(PLANT REPRODUCTION AND PLANT DEVELOPMENT)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                           TOTAL CREDITS: 03

PLANT REPRODUCTION:
UNIT-I:(10-Periods)
a)   Structure of  mature anther, pollen grain and development of male gametophyte
b) Types of mega sporangia (ovules) - Orthrotropous, Anatropous, Hemi anatropous, Campylotropous, Amphitropous and Circinotropous ovules.
c) Development of female gametophyte
d) Types of embryo sacs (Monosporic, Bisporic and Tetrasporic) 
e) Process of double fertilization, Triple fusion,
f)  Endosperm - Nuclear, Helobial and Cellular endosperm.                                              

UNIT-II: (14- Periods)
a) Embryogeny – Development of dicot and  monocot embryo (with one example)
b) Polyembryony; Introduction, Process of Polyembryony and importance
c) Palynology : Pollen grain structure, sporoderm stratification, apertures, NPC system
 Morphology of pollen grains-Tribulus, Ocimum and Maize
                        Applications of Palynology

 PLANT DEVELOPMENT:
UNIT-III: (10- Periods)
a)  Meristems- Introduction, classification.
b) Theories of  Root apical Meristems (RAM), Shoot apical Meristems (SAM)
 and   Root-Stem transition.

UNIT-IV: (08- Periods)
a)      Epidermal tissue system- Epidermis, Stomata, Epidermal outgrowths
b)      Ground and Vascular tissue systems- Cortex, Endodermis, Pericycle and Medulla
c)      Vascular tissue system- Xylem, Phloem and Types of vascular bundles.
d)      Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Root.
e)      Anatomy of  primary Dicot and Monocot  Stem
f)       Anatomy of Dicot and Monocot Leaf.

UNIT-V;  (10-Periods)

a) Normal secondary growth in dicot stem
b) Anomalous secondary growth in Boerhaavia and Dracaena
c) Wood Anatomy;   Texture of wood,
 Identification of wood,
 Seasoning and  preservation of  wood,
Systematic position and  Anatomical aspects of wood – teakwood and  
 red sanders 

Suggested Readings:

1.       Johri, B.M. 1984. Embryology of Angiosperms. Springer-Verleg, Berlin.
2.       Kapil, R.P.1986. Pollination Biology. Inter India Publishers, New Delhi.
3.       Bhojwani, S.S. and S.P.Bhatnagar. 2000. The Embryology of Angiosperms (4th Ed.), Vikas
              Publishing House, Delhi.
4.       Esau, K. 1971.Anatomy of Seed Plants. John Wiley and Son,  USA.
5.       Plant Anatomy by Elizabeth Cutler
6.       Plant Anatomy by Falm

Website address:         www. botany.com
                             www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany           


     

                                                                                                                     BOT-244              
                                                                                
                             II B.Sc., SEMESTER-IV: BOTANY PAPER-IV
                                                                      
               (ECOLOGY, CELL BIOLOGY, GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT -I:  (10-Periods)           

a) Ecological Factors: Climatic (Light, Temperature), Edaphic & Biotic (Brief account)
b)  Plant succession: Process and theories of Succession,
     Types of Succession- Hydrosere and Xerosere,
c) Population Ecology: Natural Vegetation of India
d) Biodiversity: Introduction, Endangered, Endemic, Key stone Species and Hotspots (Brief account).         
UNIT-II: 8-periods)
a) Ultra Structure of the plant cell and cell organelles (cell wall, plasma membrane, golgi complex,    
endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, plastids, ribosomes and nucleus)
b) Chromosome:  Structure, types of chromosomes, organization of chromosome ( Multistranded view, folded fibril model, Nucleosome model)
c) Cell division: Mitosis and Meiosis.
UNIT-III:  (12-Periods)
a) Mendel’s laws of inheritance.
b) Linkage- introduction, Kinds of Linkage and significance.
c)  Crossing over- Introduction, mechanism, theories and types of crossing over.
d) Mutations – Introduction, types of mutations, physical and chemical mutagens.
e) Polyploidy- Introduction, Autopolyploids and Allopolyploids.
d) Gene: Concept, Structure and functions.
UNIT-IV:  (10-Periods)
a) Plant Tissue Culture: Introduction, components of media, types of media,   preparation and                                               sterilization of culture media.
b) Micro propagation   : Somatic embryogenesis, embryo culture and its                                                                                              applications, applications of micro propagation.  
UNIT –V: (10-Periods)                      
                                                                                               
a)      Somatic hybridization: Isolation of protoplasts, somatic hybridization and its  
                                      applications.                                           
  b) Transgenic plants:       Genetically modified crops (Bt Cotton)

Suggested Readings:

1. Harris, N. and K.J. Oparka. 1994. Plant Cell Biology: A Practical Approach. IRL Press at
   University Press, Oxford. UK.
2. Kormondye, E. 1989. Concepts of Ecology (3rd Ed.) Printice Hall of India, New Delhi
3. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Diversity of Microbes, Croptogams, Cell
   Biology a nd Genetics. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
4. Sharma, P.D.1989. Elements  of  Ecology. Rastogi Publications, Meerut.
5. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Evolution                                                                                                        
                                                                                                  
Website address:       www. botany.com
                                    www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          




                                                                                                                        GE: 240-HM
                            II B.Sc., SEMESTER-III & IV: BOTANY

                                    GENERAL ELECTIVE (HERBAL MEDICINE)
TOTAL PERIODS: 51                                                                      TOTAL CREDITS: 02

UNIT-I: (15-Periods)
1. Role of plants in medicine: Introduction to Herbal medicine, Brief account of 
                                                 Ayurveda, Homeopathy and Allopathy
2. Crude Drugs: Chemical, Pharmacological classification, Sources of crude Drugs

UNIT-II:(08-Periods)
Pharmacognosy: Definition, Pharmacognosy of the following plants
               a. Drugs obtained from roots:                        Hemidesmus indicus
                                                                                      Withania somnifera
               b. Drugs obtained from underground stems: Curcuma longa
                                                                                     Zingiber officinale

UNIT-III: (08-Periods)
                                                                                     
               c. Drugs obtained from bark:                        Cinchona officinalis
                                                                                     Terminalia arjuna
                                                                       
               d. Drugs obtained from stem and wood:      Santalum album
                                                                                     Acacia catechu
UNIT-IV: (08-Periods)
               
               e. Drugs obtained from leaves:                     Adhotoda vasica
                                                                                     Aloe vera

               f. Drugs obtained from flowers:                 Artemisia vulgaris
                                                                                   Leonotis neptiifoli
 UNIT-V: (12-Periods)
                                                        
                g. Drugs obtained from Fruits:                  Coriandrum sativum
                                                                                   Foeniculum vulgare
                h. Drugs obtained from Seeds:                  Tribulus terrestris
                                                                                   Trigonella foenum-graceum
                i. Drugs obtained from all parts of the plant Body Catharanthus roseus
                                                                                           Gymnema sylvestre

Note: Botanical name, Family, Vernacular name, Botanical description, important chemical constituents and Practical applications only
                                          
Suggested readings:

1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethno botany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
2. Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Melrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants. Vol.
    I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi




BOTANY NEW SYLLABUS  2013-
   (III B.Sc SEMESTER-V&  BOT-355
                              III B.Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V

                                      (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)
       
         TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                              TOTAL CREDITS: 03                                                 
BIOSYSTEMATICS:

UNIT-I:

a) INTRODUCTION TO PLANT TAXONOMY 
                    Introduction, Objectives and functions of taxonomy,
                    Units and Principles of classification.
b) NOMENCLATURE:
                  Binomial nomenclature,
                 Generic and specific epithet, author’s citation,
                  ICBN - principles and rules,
                 Taxonomic rank, type concept and principle of priority
UNIT-II:

  CLASSIFICATION OF ANGIOSPERMS:
      a)  Bentham and Hooker’s system of classification
      b) Takhtajan system of classification 
                                                                                               
UNIT-III:

 SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING 
      FAMILIES: 
      Annonaceae, Malvaceae, Rutaceae, Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae and Apiaceae

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY

UNIT-IV:

 WATER RELATIONS
a) Physical properties of water, diffusion, imbibition, osmosis, concept of water
     potential and Plasmolysis.

   ASCENT OF SAP- Introduction and Mechanism of Ascent of sap

   TRANSPIRATION- Introduction, types of transpiration, structure of stomata, mechanism of  
    stomatal opening and closing, and Factors affecting transpiration.

 b)  ENZYMES: Introduction, structure and properties of enzymes,
     Nomenclature and classification of enzymes
     Enzymatic action – Lock and key theory and Induced fit theory.
        
UNIT-V

a) PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Introduction, chloroplast structure, photosynthetic pigments, Hill reaction, Emerson enhancement effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton transport,     Photophosphorylation, Carbon reduction pa
th ways- C3, C4, CAM. Photorespiration, factors affecting photosynthesis.

b) Translocation of organic solutes- source and sink relationship, mechanism of
translocation.
    
Suggested readings:

1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to  Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New      
    York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry,
    Biotechnology, Ecology  and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  
     Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H. Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and 
    Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
5. Fundamentals of plant physiology-Dr. V.K. Jain- S. Chand publications
6. Plant physiology- S. Mukherji and A.K. Ghosh- New central book agency
7. Plant physiology- Taiz and Zeicer,  Sinawer  associatesinc. Publications
8. Introductory plant physiology- G. Ray Noggle and George. J. Fridge

Website address:      www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          




                                                                                                          BOT-367

                    III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VII


                                  (BIOSYSTEMATICS & PLANT PHYSIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 52                                                                     TOTAL CREDITS: 03

BIOSYSTEMATICS
UNIT-I:
CURRENT CONCEPTS IN TAXONOMY 
a)Cytotaxonomy
b) Chemo-taxonomy,    
c) Serotaxonomy and Molecular Systematics (Outlines only)     
                                                                          
SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING FAMILIES:     
Asteraceae, Sapotaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Bignoniaceae and Lamiaceae
UNIT-II:

  SYSTEMATICS AND ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE FOLLOWING: 
 FAMILIES:   Amaranthaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Orchidaceae, Arecaceae and Poaceae 
             
PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
UNIT-III:

a) RESPIRATION: Introduction,  Mitochondria Structure, types of respiration: Aerobic and Anaerobic
                                respiration,  glycolysis, Krebs’s cycle, Electron transport mechanism,   
                                Oxidative phosphorylation, R.Q, fermentation, Pentose Phosphate Pathway. 
      
        b) NITROGEN METABOLISM: Introduction, Nitrogen cycle,
                                                                 Biological nitrogen fixation- Symbiotic and A symbiotic methods  
                                                                 Mechanism of nitrogen fixation
                                                                 Protein synthesis- Transcription and Translation
 UNIT-IV:

  a) PHYTO HORMONES:  Biosynthesis, Bioassay and Physiological effects of Auxins,     
                                               Gibberellins, Cytokinins, ABA, Ethylene and   
                                                Brassinosteroides
b) SEED TECHNOLOGY: Seed structure, dormancy –reasons and methods for Seed   
                                          Dormancy,
                                                      Factors affecting seed viability and seed testing
                                                      Seed Banks
                                                      Seed production and Seed certification               
      UNIT-V

        STRESS PHYSIOLOGY: Introduction, types of stress resistance- avoidance and tolerance
         a) Water stress      b) Salt stress        c) Temperature stress           d) Heavy metal stress

   Suggested readings:   

1. Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to Plant Physiology. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New     
    York, USA.
2. Pandey, B.P.2007. Botany for Degree Students: Plant Physiology, Biochemistry,
    Biotechnology, Ecology and Utilization of Plants. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New  
     Delhi.
3. Davis, P.H. and V.H.Heywood. 1963. Principals of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Oliver and 
    Boyd, London.
4. Heywood, V.H. and D.H. Moore (Eds). 1984. Current Concepts in Plant Taxonomy.
    Academic Press, London.
5. Salisbury, F.B. and C.W. Ross. 1992. Plant Physiology. 4th edn. (Indian Edition),
    Wordsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., USA.
6. Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger.1998. Plant Physiology ( 2nd Ed.)  Sinauer Associates, Inc., 
    Publishers. Massachusetts, USA.
7.Plant physiology- S.N. Pandey   & B.K. Sinha

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

                                                                                                                                            
                                                                                                                                               
                                                                                                            BOT-356-MB                  
                     III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-V
                                    (SKILL BASED-I:  MEDICINAL BOTANY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                         TOTAL CREDITS: 3

UNIT-I: (05-Periods)
INTRODUCTION:           
a) Terminology, importance of medicinal plants,
b) Preparation and preservation of Herbaria
c) Research institutes (CDRI, CSIR, CIMAP and NBRI)
d)  Medicinal gardens (TBRI, LLOYDS, BSI and garden of medicinal plants-Goa)
UNIT-II: (07-Periods)
 ROLE OF MEDICINAL BOTANY IN DIFFERENT MEDICAL SYSTEMS:     
a) Ayurveda- Introduction, basic concepts, functions, diagnosis and treatment
b) Homeopathy-Introduction, basic concepts, diagnosis and treatment
c) Allopathy: Introduction, early concept, modern concept, diagnosis and treatment
UNIT-III: (05-Periods)
PHARMACOGNOSY:                            
a)Introduction, branches of pharmacology, materia medica, crude drug,
b) Source and administration of drugs.
c) Identification tests for secondary plant metabolites in drugs - alkaloids, steroids  
    and phenolics.
UNIT-IV: (05-Periods)
a)CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:  
      Importance,  methods of cultivation, harvesting and drying methods.
b) ETHNOBOTANY:       
Introduction, importance and   Ethno botanical studies in Andhra Pradesh
UNIT-V: (04-Periods)
a)CONSERVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS:   Objectives and conservation  
    methods ( In-situ and Ex-situ conservation)
b) ROLE OF HERBAL BASED DRUGS IN TREATING CERTAIN
   HUMAN AILMENTS IN INDIA: Diabetes, Jaundice and Skin diseases

Suggested readings:

1. Jain, S.K. and V.Mudgal. 1999. A Handbook of Ethnobotany. Bishen Singh Mahendra   
     Pal Singh, Dehradun.
1.      Rastogi, R.R. and B.N. Mehrotra. 1993. Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants.Vol. I & Vol. II. CSIR, Publication and Information Directorate, New Delhi.

Website address:      www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          

              
                                                 
                                                                                                           BOT: 356-MOB
                                      III.B. Sc. SEMESTER-V: BOTANY PAPER-VI

                                    (SKILL BASED-II:  MOLECULAR BIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                             TOTAL CREDITS: 03
UNIT-I:( Periods-05)
 Nucleic acids
     a) Structure, types and  functions of DNA and  RNA
     b) Replication of DNA  in Prokaryotes
     c) Replication of DNA  in  Eukaryotes
UNIT-II: ( Periods-06)
      a)Transcription: Principles, transcriptional initiation in Prokaryotes and eukaryotes
      b)Translation: Genetic code,  Wobble hypothesis
      c) Protein synthesis- outlines only
UNIT-III: ( Periods-06)
Genetic Engineering
a)       Recombinant-DNA-technology: Introduction, different steps in r-DNA technology
b)      Vectors(Plasmids, Bacteriophages, Cosmids & Plasmids)
UNIT-IV:(Periods-05)
   Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
         a) Agarose Gel electrophoresis
         b) Nucleic acid Blotting techniques (Southern,  Northern & Western techniques)
UNIT-V:(Periods-04)
 Basic techniques in Genetic Engineering:
           a) PCR: Principle, Technique of PCR, Applications of PCR
           b) DNA finger printing

Suggested readings:

1. Verma, P.S. and V.K. Agarwal. 2004. Cell Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology,  
    Evolution and Ecology. S.Chand & Company Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Channarayappa. 2007. Molecular Biotechnology-Principle and Practices. Universities, Press (India) Private Limited, Hyderabad.
3. Satyanarayana, U.2008. Biotechnology. Books and  Allied (P) Ltd.
4. Freifelder, D-Micribial Genetics, Narosa publishing house, New Delhi
5. Strickberger, M.W. Genetics. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi

Website address:         www. botany.com
                                   www. Wikipedia.org/wiki/botany          



                                                                                                       BOT: 368-AM

                                    III. B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII

(SUBJECT ELECTIVE- APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                                    TOTAL CREDITS: 03
                                                              
UNIT-I: (06-Periods)
  a)  History of Microbiology
  b)  Microscopy: Compound Microscope, Electron Microscopy-TEM and SEM
        c)  Bacteria: Structure, reproduction and economic importance.

UNIT-II:  (06-Periods)
       a) Classification of Bacteria basing on nutritional requirements,
       b) Preparation of bacterial growth media- Natural, synthetic, semi synthetic and
           enrichment types.
       c) Physical conditions required for growth (Temp and PH)

UNIT-III:  (04-Periods)
         Disease:  
a)      Immunotherapy –Introduction, types of Immunotherapy,  significance
b)     Chemotherapy – Introduction, principles, treatment types , dosage, delivery and    
                                   Limitations.
      UNIT-IV:  (05-Periods)

a)      Antibiotics- Introduction, types of antibiotics, side effects and antibiotic resistance.
b)      Production of Penicillin: Introduction, structure, mechanism of action, adverse effects and uses 
UNIT-V:  (05-Periods)
        Microbial diseases of Humans caused by
a)      Virus-   Hepatitis      
b)     Protozoa- Amoebiasis
c)      Bacteria- Tuberculosis

Suggested readings:

1. Mc kane, L. and K. Judy.1996. Microbiology- Essentials and  Applications. Mc Graw  
    Hill,  New York.
2. Pelczar, J. 2006. Microbiology.Tata Mc Graw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd. New 
    Delhi.
3.Brown, Kevin. (2004). Penicillin Man: Alexander Fleming and the Antibiotics


                                                                                      BOT: 368-HC

                                         III B.Sc., SEMESTER-VI: BOTANY PAPER-VIII
(SUBJECT ELECTIVE-HORTICULTURE)

TOTAL PERIODS: 26                                                  TOTAL CREDITS: 03

UNIT-I: Introduction (06-Periods)
 a) Brief history of Horticulture
 b) Protection of Horticultural plants from Weeds, Animal pests and diseases                                                                   
 c) Principles and methods of pest control
 d) Classification of Pesticides
                                                                                           
UNIT-II: Propagation of Horticultural plants (06-Periods)
a)      Sexual propagation: Seed production and certification process
b)      Seed quality analysis, seed viability and longevity
 c) Vegetative propagation: Grafting and Layering
 d) Specialized underground structure: Plants propagated by separation
                                                               Plants propagated by division

UNIT-III: Plant Culture (04-Periods)
 a)  House plants: Plants grown in the windows, garden rooms and hanging baskets
 b) Terrarium culture: Introduction, Types of terrariums, tools, planting medium,       
                                     planting, care and maintenance

UNIT-IV: Indoor Plant Culture (04-Periods)
a) Bonsai:  Introduction, Principles, creating, training and repotting bonsai and
              Post Establishment care
b) Floriculture: Introduction, cultivation of chrysanthemum and Rosa indica.
c) Green house- History, types of green houses, construction, maintenance and importance.

UNIT-V: Outdoor Plant Culture (06-Periods)
a)      Land scaping: Landscaping, Categories,  designing of Landscaping and   
                               plants in  the land scapeing
b)      Nursery production: Location of the nursery, nursery beds preparation, raising seed beds, pruning and transplantation
c)       Micro irrigation: Introduction,  types of Micro irrigation methods and importance
                
Suggested readings:
1. Adams, C.R., K.M. Banford and M.P. Early. 1993. Principles of Horticulture. 
     Butterworth Heineman Ltd., London. 
          

  



                       QUESTION PAPER PATTERN
           
                  ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS): VIJAYAWADA – 8

                                       I.B.Sc. SEMESTER –I BOTANY PAPER – I
                
                                                       PLANT DIVERSITY – I

                          (MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)


                                                                 Part – A

Very short answer Questions (one or two sentences answer) covering two questions from each unit. Each question carries two marks as follows.
                                                                                                                       
 Q.I                                                        10X2 = 20M

 a, b  ---------------------------------- From unit - I
 c, d  ---------------------------------- From unit - I
 e, f  -----------------------------------From unit - III
 g, h  ---------------------------------- From unit - IV
 i, j   ---------------------------------- From unit – V


                                                             Part – B
  Five essay questions covering one question from each unit with internal choice.
   
  Q II   :  From Unit – I                                                    1X16 = 16M
  Q III:   From Unit – II                                                   1X16 = 16M
 Q IV:   From Unit – III                                                  1X16 = 16M
  Q V:    From Unit – IV                                                 1X16 =16M
  Q VI:   From Unit – V                                                  1X16 =16M

 



************************




                ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) VIJAYAWADA – 8

                                       I.B.Sc. SEMESTER –I BOTANY PAPER – I

                                                   PLANT DIVERSITY – I

              (MICROBIOLOGY, ALGAE, FUNGI & PLANT PATHOLOGY)
                                      
                                      MODEL QUESTION  PAPER
Time: 3 hrs                                                                         Max  Marks : 100

Part – A

I.   Answer all the questions in the same sequential order in which they appear 
                                                                                                                        10X 2 = 20M

 a)  What is Transduction? Who discovered it.

 b) Define: 1. Phytophages and Mycophages

 c) What is alternation of generation? Give one example of alga showing isomorphic
    alternation of generation.

 d)Name the nitrogen fixing algae. Which class do they belong to?

e)  What is wonder drug? Name the scientist who discovered it.

f)  Name the disease caused by Albugo? Write the name of the host plant.

g)  What is root rot? Name one pathogen.

h) What is blast? Mention the casual organism.

i)  What is Bhendi vein clearing? Mention the casual organism.

j)  What are antagonists? Give one example.


Part – B

II. Answer any one set of the following                     1X16 = 16M


a)      Economic importance of Bacteria
OR

     a)  Bacteriophage.  – 6M
     b)  Replication of Viruses - 10M

  III. Answer any one set of the following                1X16 = 16 M

      a)  Thallus organization in Algae
OR

a)      Cystocarp –               --8M
b)      Dwarf male  -             -8M

IV. Answer any one set of the following                 1X16 = 16 M

       a)  Asexual reproduction in Albugo- 10M
       b)  Lichen thallus T.S                      - 6M

OR

       a)  Puccinia life cycle on Wheat plant   - 16 M

V.   Answer any one set of the following                   1X16 = 16 M

a)   Write the casual organism and symptoms of any four bacterial diseases -16M

                                                OR
      a)   Write the casual organism and symptoms of any four fungal diseases -8M
      b)   Any four control measures of plant diseases   - 4M
      c)   Symptoms of  rust disease -                             - 4M


VI.   Answer any one set of the following                  1X16 = 16 M

a)   Explain the life cycle of citrus canker -168M


OR
      a)   Red rot of sugarcane - 5M
      b)   Necrosis-5
      c)  Damping off-6                             


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